Gerard, K, Salkeld, G & Hall, J 1990, 'Counting the costs of mammography screening: First year results from the Sydney study', Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 152, no. 9, pp. 466-471.
Population-based mammography screening is a highly specialized service which aims to improve the early detection of breast cancer. This is achieved through the installation of a dedicated mix of medical technology and professional skills. It is therefore a resource-intensive activity so the benefits foregone by deploying these resources for mammography screening ought to be determined to investigate the relative efficiency of such a commitment. This paper describes the costing methodology used in the evaluation of the Sydney Breast X-ray Programme and presents the health service costs for the first 12 months of operation. In the first year when attendance was under 5000 it cost $118.93 to screen a woman, $13,817 to detect a cancer and $18,720 to detect an impalpable cancer. However, costs are expected to fall in subsequent years as attendance reaches capacity level. The first screening round will detect prevalent cancers; costs will change with subsequent screening rounds as incident cancers are detected. We are cautious in extrapolating the costs of a national programme from these results. However, on the basis of our data and disregarding treatment costs, a national programme which screened 70% of all Australian women over the age of 45 years every two years would add between $60 million and $100 million to the national health bill each year.
Gerard, K, Salkeld, G & Hall, J 1990, 'Counting the costs of mammography screening: First year results from the Sydney study (I: Reply)', Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 153, no. 3, p. 175.
Hall, J 1990, 'What every doctor should know about economics (I: Reply)', Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 152, no. 7, p. 388.
In this article we have discussed a number of aspects of economic appraisal. Economic evaluation considers both costs and benefits. Cost-benefit analysis requires the evaluation of health in dollar terms but allows the comparison of health programmes with other programmes or the evaluation of one project alone. Because of the problems that are associated with placing a monetary value on life and health, cost-benefit analysis has not been used in the health field as extensively as has cost-effectivenes analysis. Cost-effectiveness analysis is used to compare alternative programmes with the same health goal. The importance of quality as well as length of life as health outcomes has led to the development of cost-utility analysis. Finally, a good economic evaluation of health care requires the collaboration of clinicians and health economists.
Hall, J & Mooney, G 1990, 'What every doctor should known about economics. Part 1. The benefits of costing', Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 152, no. 1, pp. 29-31.
Fisher had an immense impact on the practice of biometrics, particularly in agriculture. In this paper an attempt is made to describe the innovations in which he played a part and which have had the most effect on the practice of biometrics.